“Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the Atlantic System: A Reappraisal” (2012) by Philippe R Girard
Citation: Girard P.R. “Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the Atlantic System: A Reappraisal.” William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 69, no. 3, 2012, pp. 549–582., doi:10.5309/willmaryquar.69.3.0549.
Info: “Revered in Haiti as a founding father committed to his countrymen’s freedom and independence, decried by his white contemporaries as a bloodthirsty brute, Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines was actually a multifaceted historical figure who borrowed much of his worldview and many of his policies from the colonial plantation system of the Atlantic world”.
“Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the African Character of the Haitian Revolution” (2012) by Deborah Jenson
Citation: Deborah Jenson. “Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the African Character of the Haitian Revolution.” The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 69, no. 3, 2012, pp. 615–638.
Info: The possibility that Dessalines was not Creole but African represents a critical link for renewed theorization of how the Middle Passage informed African revolutionary agency in colonial Saint Domingue. The oral traditions of Vodou provide a valuable source of alternative historiography for study of the African character of the Haitian Revolution.